Diseases

CANINE DISEASES
DISTEMPER
A highly contagious viral disease (a close relative of the viruses that cause measles in man) resulting in fever with ocular and nasal discharges. This may be followed by pneumonia, vomiting, diarrhea and/or brain damage. Puppies from 3-6 months old are particularly susceptible. CDV spreads through aerosol droplets or contact with infected bodily fluids, including nasal and ocular secretions, faeces and urine, 6-22 days after exposure. The time between infection and disease is 14-18 days, although a fever can appear from 3-6 days after infection. Recovery rate is very low.

HEPATITIS
A viral disease resulting in depression, diarrhea, tonsillitis and acute abdominal pain due to enlargement of the liver. The virus is spread in faeces and other bodily fluids from infected dogs. It is contracted through the mouth or nose, where it replicates in the tonsils. The virus then infects the liver and kidneys. The incubation period is 4-7 days and severity ranges from a slight fever to fatal illness.

PARVOVIRAL ENTERITIS
A contagious viral disease which attacks the intestines causing acute diarrhoea and vomiting resulting in rapid dehydration and possible death. The virus is transmitted either by direct contact with an infected dog, or indirectly, by the fecal-oral route. Improper vaccination protocol and vaccination failure can also lead to a CPV infection. Certain dog breeds, such as Rottweilers, Dobermans, Labradors, German Shepherds, English Springer Spaniels, and Husky/Malamutes are particularly vulnerable to the disease.

CANINE (KENNEL) COUGH
Kennel Cough (Infectioius Canine Tracheobronchitis) is caused by a number of organisms including Parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bacteria. Clinical signs vary from a dry hacking cough to a productive moist cough with secondary pneumonia. Antibiotics are given to treat any bacterial infection. Cough suppressants are used if the cough is not productive. Prevention is aided by vaccinating but like human influenza, even after vaccination, a dog can still contract mutated strains. In some cases, like kennels or doggie daycare, it is usually not a cleaning or disinfecting issue, but rather an airborne issue, as the dogs are in contact with each other's saliva and breath. Although most kennels require proof of vaccination, the vaccination is not a fail-safe preventative.


FELINE DISEASES
RESPIRATORY DISEASE
Cats are particularly susceptible to a complex of respiratory diseases, some of which can lead to death.

VIRAL RHINOTRACHEITIS (FVR)
FVR is caused by a Herpesvirus. It gives rise to severe flu-like symptoms with discharge from the eyes and nose. There is fever and inappetence. Death can occur with pneumonia as a complication.

CALICIVIRAL DISEASE (FCV)
FCV is caused by several serotypes of Calicivirus Cats, have similar signs to FVR and is clinically indistinguishable.
Cats typically acquire feline calcivirus (FCV) after coming into contact with other infected cats. Because FCV is resistant to disinfectants, cats may come into contact with the virus in almost any environment. Lack of vaccination or improper vaccination is thought be an important risk factor, as well as a lowered immune response due to pre-existing infections or diseases.

ENTERITIS (PANLEUKOPEONIA)
Panleukopoenia is a multisystemic disease caused by the Parvovirus. The most immediate damage is to the lining of the intestines, young kittens are most susceptible and acute deaths can occur.